Human Development in Bangaru Telangana

Human Development in Bangaru Telangana
Highlights

Issues related to Telangana State are long pervading and chronic in nature. 6 out of 10 districts are backward in many aspects. Nearly 80 percent of Telangana\'s population is BCs, SCs, STs and Minorities.

Issues related to Telangana State are long pervading and chronic in nature. 6 out of 10 districts are backward in many aspects. Nearly 80 percent of Telangana's population is BCs, SCs, STs and Minorities. “Dalits, tribals, BCs and minorities were denied opportunities all these years, and that needs to be changed. I will personally ensure that the welfare schemes meant for them are effectively implemented. Problems are socio-economic and cultural in nature. Human Development Indicators (HDI) of the state population can be better indicators to get acquainted with the nature of problems with which, people of the State were living with.

Structural vulnerabilities are where social and legal institutions, power structures, political spaces, or traditions and socio-cultural norms do not serve members of society equally—and where they create structural barriers for some people and groups to exercise their rights and choices—they give rise to structural vulnerabilities.

HDR 2014

As per the report prepared by CESS, on Human Development Index (HDI) of different Districts in Telangana State: 2015, HDI (see Table.1) of 8 out of 10 districts lying below 0.540 (Low Human Development), Ranga Reddy District HDI (0.605) (Medium Human Development), and Hyderabad HDI (0.764) (High Human Development) which indicates the structural vulnerabilities, the and also bring parity between all the indices, within the district. The state had gone through all these years. Medak, with high Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP), had been in the 10th position in terms of HDI, indicates that economic growth may not always accompany with overall human development. Data in table 1, reflects that all indices are not satisfactory within the district and growth is uneven between the districts. The challenge for the present government is to mitigate these differences between the districts

Table 1: HDI and its Rankings across Districts of Telangana

District

2011-12

2004-05

to 2011-12

HDI

Rank

Annual Growth Rate of GDDP

Rank

Adilabad

0.508

6

8.0

10

Hyderabad

0.764

1

13.0

3

Karimnagar

0.521

4

11.0

6

Khammam

0.519

5

8.4

8

Mahaboobnagar

0.464

9

9.7

7

Medak

0.446

10

16.8

1

Nalgonda

0.500

7

11.6

4

Nizamabad

0.466

8

11.2

5

Ranga Reddy

0.605

2

16.3

2

Warangal

0.534

3

8.2

9

Telangana

0.510

--

12.0

Source: Human Development Index (HDI) of different Districts in Telanaga State: 2015

According to the Report prepared by CESS on HDI of different districts in Telangana State: 2015, status of the state health and education parameters are as follows.

In health, the study included 23 indicators related to fertility, mortality, maternal, child nutrition and general health. None of the districts are found with better performance in terms of at least 11 indicators. However, Hyderabad found relatively well due to its 9 better-performing indicators and with only 2 least performing indicators (see table2). Based on the analysis through 23 indicators that the common areas of concern are maternal care, child nutrition, and general health with respect to all the districts of Telangana.

Table 2: Performance of Health-Indicators and Areas of Concern

District

Number of Better Performance Indicators

Number of Least Performance Indicators

Areas of Concern

Adilabad

6

3

Mortality, Maternal Care

Hyderabad

9

2

Maternal care and General Health

Karimnagar

7

3

Child Nutrition and General Health

Khammam

2

8

Fertility, Mortality, Maternal Care, Child Nutrition and General Health

Mahabubnagar

3

6

Fertility, Mortality, Maternal Care, Child Nutrition and General Health

Medak

5

8

Fertility, Mortality, Maternal Care, Child Nutrition and General Health

Nalgonda

6

0

Mortality

Nizamabad

3

4

Maternal Care, Child Nutrition, and General Health

Ranga Reddy

3

5

Fertility, Maternal Care, and Child Nutrition

Warangal

5

7

Fertility, Child Nutrition, and General Health

Source: Human Development Index (HDI) of different Districts in Telangana State: 2015, CESS

State public health infrastructure is poor. The achievement of Public Health Centres per 30,000 persons (WHO norm) was 55.2 percent in the state during 2013. The achievement of Sub Centres per 5000 persons was 73.4 percent while the achievement of required beds per lakh persons (Kerala achievement - 330 per lakh persons) was 17.7 and doctors per 1000 persons were 13.2 percent. The achievement levels of beds and doctors were higher in Hyderabad, Nizamabad and Warangal districts.

At the State level, according to 2011 Census, 91.4 percent of households have safe drinking water facility (Tap water, Hand-pump, and Tube wells). In few districts namely, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nalgonda and Warangal, this percentage was below the average. Around 50 percent of households have sanitation facilities during 2011 at the state level. This proportion of households was below the state average in all the districts except in Hyderabad (98.5%) and Ranga Reddy (81.4%).

In Education, the literacy rate in the state is not very encouraging. Only 66.5 percent of the population were literates during 2011(Figure 3). Hyderabad with 83.2 percent and Ranga Reddy with 75.9 percent stands in first and second positions respectively. Mahabunagar with 55 percent is at the 10th position in the state. Improvement in literacy between 2001 and 2011 was 8.5 percentage points.

Source: Human Development Index (HDI) of different Districts in Telangana State: 2015, CESS

Rural-Urban Gap: Literacy rates differ significantly between rural and urban areas. The rural literacy rate was only 57.3 percent as against 81.1 per cent in urban areas. Thus, there is a gap of 23.8 points between rural and urban areas. Telangana state rural-urban gap was much above the national average of 16.3 percentage points. (HDI of different Districts in Telangana State: 2015)

Caste and Literacy: Literacy rates were lower among SC and ST communities as compared to other communities. While overall literacy rate was 66.5 percent, corresponding rates among SC and ST communities were 58.9 percent and 49.5 percent respectively in the year 2011. Thus, there is a gap of about 7.6 percentage points for SCs and 17 per cent for STs.

Around 79 percent of males and 78 percent of females are literates with primary and above level schooling in the state during 2011. Around 87 percent of persons in the age group of 15-24 were literates at the state level in 2011. The proportion of children completing primary education at the age 12 years was 67 percent according to 2011 Census. The drop-out rate at the primary level in the state was 23.1 percent during the period 2012-13. The drop-out rate among STs was 35.8 percent, higher than that of SCs and all social groups.

Education Infrastructure

There has been an improvement in the education infrastructure indicators in the state. Around 87 percent of the schools have drinking water facility and 75 percent of schools have separate toilets for girls during 2011-12. But wide variations are observed across the districts. For instance, Adilabad, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda and Warangal districts have a lower percentage of schools with drinking water facility than the state average.

Conclusion: Overall status on health and education indicates that state needs greater attention in terms of health and education. Health and education are considered as core capabilities of people in a state. People with limited core capabilities are less able to live their lives and even value their lives. Lack of good health and quality education restricts human development.

G.Rajendera Kumar

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