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A two-day International Conference on Sustainable Biofuels is jointly being organized by Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India and Biofuture platform, on Monday and Tuesday. The objective is to work together to meet the objective of producing at scale affordable advanced Biofuels. This is the largest multilateral platform to promote research, development and demonstration in clean energy. Use of fossil fuels for transportation contributes significantly to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. The sustainable biofuels have ability to reduce the GHG emission load.  

Biofuels, in the form of liquid fuels derived from plant materials, are entering the market, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security. However, many of these first-generation biofuels that are currently being supplied have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use. The challenge is to support second, third and fourth-generation biofuel development. 

Second-generation biofuels include new cellulosic technologies, with responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable. Responsible commercialization of biofuels represents an opportunity to enhance sustainable economic prospects in Africa, Latin America and Asia.  A healthy supply of alternative energy sources will help to combat gasoline price spikes and reduce dependency on fossil fuels, especially in the transport sector. 

Brazil’s production of ethanol fuel from sugarcane dates back to the 1970s.  development of resistant sugar cane varieties is a crucial aspect of disease and pest control. Crops like Jatropha, used for biodiesel, can thrive on marginal agricultural land where many trees and crops won't grow, or would produce only slow growth yields.[47][48] Jatropha cultivation provides benefits for local communities. 

Pongamia pinnata is a legume native to Australia, India, Florida (USA) and most tropical regions, and is now being invested in as an alternative to Jatropha for areas such as Northern Australia, where Jatropha is classed as a noxious weed. A study by researchers at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) found that growing sweet sorghum instead of grain sorghum could increase farmers incomes by US$40 per hectare per crop because it can provide food, feed and fuel,according to Wikipedia.