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Economic infrastructure in Bangaru Telangana

Economic infrastructure in Bangaru Telangana
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Highlights

Infrastructure is one of the major pre-requisite of economic growth as it creates production capacity, provides employment opportunities, reduces transaction costs, and improves standard of livings.

Infrastructure is one of the major pre-requisite of economic growth as it creates production capacity, provides employment opportunities, reduces transaction costs, and improves the standard of livings. Infrastructure is an umbrella term consisting of economic infrastructure and social infrastructure. While economic infrastructure consists of roads, railways, ports, airports, irrigation, power plants, telecommunications etc. social infrastructure comprises of schools, universities, hospitals, dispensaries etc. Responsibility for some of these infrastructure facilities falls in State Government domain and some in Central Government domain.

Figure 6.1: Relationship between Infrastructure and Poverty

Source: Ali Ifzal and Ernesto M. Pernia (2003), Infrastructure and Poverty Reduction, ADB Publication.

Key infrastructure sectors for State at the present juncture of development are irrigation, power, and roads. The Government has accorded highest priority to increase irrigation facilities and to provide uninterrupted power supply for all consumers. In order to augment irrigation infrastructure in the State, the government initiated several measures such as undertaking new irrigation projects with a proper redesign to suit States irrigation requirements and ‘Mission Kakatiya’ a flagship program for reviving the tank irrigation in Telangana.

Irrigation in Telangana

Irrigation remains the backbone of the agricultural development as it increases crop productivity and reduces the risk of crop failure. Development of irrigation infrastructure is important in Telangana since rainfall occurs only for three to four months and irrigation is the only source during the rest of the year.

Extent of Un-irrigated Area in Telangana

Of the total 43.77 lakh hectares net sown area in Telangana in 2014-15, around 40 percent was irrigated implying a large part of agriculture is rainfed. Only three districts i.e., Karimnagar, Warangal, and Nizamabad have irrigated agriculture of more than 50 percent, revealing the dire need for an increase in irrigation infrastructure in the State (see Figure and Table ).
Figure: District-wise share of irrigated and unirrigated agriculture in Telangana 2014-15

Table 6.1: District-wise Net Sown Area and Net Irrigated Area in 2014-15

Sl No

Districts

Net Sown Area (NSA) in 000 hectares

Total NSA (in 000 hectares)

Percentage of Unirrigated Area

Of Which, Net Area Irrigated

Of Which, Unirrigated Area

1

Adilabad

81

476

557

85.46

2

Nizamabad

165

125

290

43.1

3

Karimnagar

315

196

511

38.36

4

Medak

144

329

473

69.56

6

Rangareddy

64

166

230

72.17

7

Mahabubnagar

249

617

866

71.25

8

Nalgonda

254

329

583

56.43

9

Warangal

276

185

461

40.13

10

Khammam

178

228

406

56.16

Total

1726

2651

4377

60.57

Source: Agricultural Statistical At a Glance of Telangana-2014-15, DES.

Publicly Funded and Privately Funded Irrigation Sources: The sources of irrigation have been classified into two categories (i) privately funded comprising of tube wells and dug wells (ii) publicly funded comprising of canals, tanks, and others sources. The district-wise analysis reveals that Telangana’s irrigation sector is dominated by privately funded irrigation sources i.e., wells. About 75 percent of the total net irrigation area in the State is well irrigated as against the al-India average of 62 percent (Figure 6.2).This indicates that irrigation needs of Telangana State were utterly neglected in combined state of Andhra Pradesh.

Figure 6.2: District-wise Area Irrigated with Private (Wells) and Public (Canals & Tanks) Sources of Irrigation in Telangana 2014-15

Rangareddy has the highest percentage of well-irrigated area (95 percent) in the State followed by Medak, and Karimnagar districts. Khammam has highest public funded irrigation infrastructure (57percent) followed by Nalgonda (see Figure 6.2). It is also clear from Table 6.1 and Figure 6.2 that districts with less irrigated area have a higher dependency on publicly funded irrigation sources, indicating the necessity to increase public funded irrigation facilities in the State.

Irrigation policy of the combined State of A.P ignored Telangana’s requirements on three fronts: (i) neglect of tank irrigation, leading to destruction of age-old water conservation systems, (ii) lesser financial allocation leading to non/partial-completion of irrigation projects, (iii) designing of irrigation projects in such a way that gives lesser share to Telangana in river waters. Addressing these issues, the Telangana Government took up three new initiatives (i) Mission Kakatiya for the revival of tank irrigation in the State and (ii) redesign of irrigation projects to suit Telangana’s needs and (iii) a substantial increase in budgetary allocation to irrigation sector during 2014-15 and 2015-16.

G.Rajendera Kumar

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