Green House Gas emissions in India
“As per the Biennial Update Report submitted by India, the quantum of India’s total green house gas (GHG) emissions (excluding LULUCF) in 2010 was...
“As per the Biennial Update Report submitted by India, the quantum of India’s total green house gas (GHG) emissions (excluding LULUCF) in 2010 was 2.136 billion tonnes Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq). In 2010, the year for which comparable figures are available, India’s emissions are lower than GHG emissions of China (11.183 billion tonnes CO2eq), USA (6.713 billion tonnes CO2eq), European Union (4.834 billion tonnes CO2eq) and Brazil (2.902 billion tonnes CO2eq), according to Minister of State (Independent Charge) of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Anil Madhav Dave, in Rajya Sabha on March 27.
It may be recalled that India submitted its first Biennial Update Report (BUR) on 22nd January to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), towards fulfillment of the reporting obligation under the Convention. As per the provisions of the Convention, countries need to periodically provide information in the form of their National Communication.
BUR contains national GHG inventory of India for the year 2010, prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory covers six greenhouse gases, viz. Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) and five categories, namely- energy, industrial processes and product use (IPPU), agriculture, waste and Land-use, Land-use, Change and Forestry (LULUCF).
As per BUR, India emitted 2,136.84 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases in 2010. Energy sector was the prime contributor to emissions and with 71% of total emissions in 2010. Energy sector includes - electricity production, fuel combustion in industries, transport and fugitive emissions. Industrial processes and product use contributed 8%; agriculture and waste sectors contributed 18% and 3% respectively to the national GHG inventory.
About 12% of emissions were offset by carbon sink action of forests and croplands, considering which the national GHG emissions are arrived at a total of 1,884.31 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. India’s per capita GHG emission in 2010 was 1.56 tCO2 equivalent, which is less than one- third of the world’s per capita emissions and far below than many developed and developing countries. A reduction of emission intensity of GDP by about 12% between 2005 and 2010 has been achieved against our voluntary pledge to reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 20–25 per cent by 2020, compared with the 2005 level.