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Nobel prize

Nobel prize
Highlights

The 2017 Nobel Prize in medicine has been given to three scientists -'for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian...

The 2017 Nobel Prize in medicine has been given to three scientists "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm", or the biological clock. Jeffrey C Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W Young were together given their award for understanding the mysteries of how life tracks time and changes itself according to the movement of the sun.

On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace - the Nobel Prizes. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, according to nobelprize.com.

The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, and later from 18 carat green gold plated with a 24 carat gold coating. Between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organisations, according Wikipedia.

With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, and 881 individuals. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, as is the Prize in Economic Sciences.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded not by a Swedish organisation but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people, adds Wikipedia.

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