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Logical Reasoning & Analytical Ability

Logical Reasoning & Analytical Ability
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Usually, under this category of questions, a statement is given which is followed by two arguments. The test-takers are required to distinguish between the two arguments and find out which one is strong.

Statement and Argument
Usually, under this category of questions, a statement is given which is followed by two arguments. The test-takers are required to distinguish between the two arguments and find out which one is strong.

An argument may be strong in the following situations:

(i)A strong argument should give the realistic diagnosis of the situation described in the statement.
(ii)A strong argument should relate with the statement and be supported by the facts or established notions.
(iii)A strong argument should be gauzed by the previous experiences and it can be predicted that the result will follow.
(iv)A strong argument should not be mere reiteration of the situation given in the statement.
Note: No argument should be based on emotion, feeling etc., because a weak argument is very simple, superfluous, ambiguous and long-drawn one.

Le t us see a few examples of arguments.

Statement: Should we encourage computerisation?

Argument: Yes, the US is also doing this.
Explanation: Any argument cannot be taken with the context of a person, incident of a country or some other examples. We cannot compare certain qualities with the other. Therefore, the above is not a strong argument.

Statement: Should smoking be banned?

Argument: Yes, smoking should be banned immediately.

Explanation: This argument is just the repetition of the statement. Therefore, this is not a strong argument.
The following is the pattern of this kind of questions in the examination.

Each of the following questions consists of a statement followed by two arguments I and II.

Mark option (A) if only argument I is strong, (B) if only argument II is strong, (C) if either I or II is strong, (D) if neither I nor II is strong, (E) if both I and II are strong.

Let us see a couple of examples as per the pattern given above.

Statement: Should internal assessment in colleges be abolished?

Arguments-
I: Yes, this will help in reducing the possibility of favouritism.
II: No, teaching faculty will lose control over students.
Answer: A

Explanation: Abolishing the internal assessment would surely reduce favouritism on personal grounds because the teachers of that college would not be involved in examination system so that they cannot extend personal benefit to anyone whom they like.

So, argument I is strong. But it will not affect the control of teaching faculty on students because the teachers would be teaching them. Therefore, argument II is not strong.

Statement: Should there be only one entrance test for all the medical colleges, both government and private?
Arguments-
I: Yes, this will bring in uniformity in the standard of students at the time of admissions and will reduce the multiplicity of entrance tests.

II: No, each college has unique requirement and decisions on admissions should be left to the concerned colleges.
Answer: A
Explanation: Argument I only is strong because one entrance test will bring uniformity in the standard of students, which is necessary.

Statements and Assumptions
An assumption is the hidden part of an argument and it is something taken for granted. It means a fact that can be supposed as considering the content of the given statement.

In these questions, a statement is followed by two or more assumptions. The test-taker is required to assess the given statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit in the statement.

The following is the pattern of this type of questions.

Direction: In each question below a statement is followed by assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit?

Mark option (A) if only assumption I is implicit, (B) if only assumption II is implicit, (C) if either assumption I or II is implicit, (D) if neither assumption I nor II is implicit, (E) if both the assumptions are implicit.

Let us see a few examples as per the pattern given above.

Statement: It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 3 or so.

Assumptions:
I.At this age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.
II.The schools do not admit children after four years of age.
Answer: A

Explanation: The statement talks of putting the child in school at the age of 3. It means that the child is mentally prepared for learning at this age. So, assumption I is implicit. But, nothing about admission after four years of age is said or implied in the statement. Therefore, assumption II is not implicit.

Statement: An interview letter says, “You have to bear your expenses on travel”.

Assumptions:
I.If not clarified, all the candidates may claim reimbursement of expenses.
II.Many organisations reimburse expenses on travel for attending an interview.
Answer: E

Explanation: In the letter, specific instruction has been given in writing to prevent the chances of claim of reimbursement of travelling expenses. Further, it can also be assumed that instruction has been given because expenses are reimbursed by some other organisations. Therefore, both the assumptions are implicit.

Statement: The government has decided to reduce the custom duty on computer peripherals.

Assumptions:
I.The domestic price of computer peripherals may go up in near future.
II.The domestic manufacturers may oppose the decision.
Answer: D

Explanation: None of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

By:Sree Kumar Guntupalli

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